- Eduardo Viveiros de Castro; The Untimely Again
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They burned Australia down! The proof that they are human is that they now share all of our defects, which got transformed little by little into qualities during the decades that gave us Thatcher, Reagan, the Patriot Act, the new Fortress Europe, neo-liberalism — and evolutionary psychology as a bonus. Now we know where the real core of the God delusion is hiding. It is against this second mode of universalization — reactionary, unimaginative and, above all, reproductive of the model and figure of the State as the true Universal — that the work of Clastres was written, preemptively one could say.
For he knew very well that the State could not tolerate, would never tolerate, primitive societies. Immanence and multiplicity are always scandalous in the eyes of the One.
Eduardo Viveiros de Castro; The Untimely Again
Chapter 9 of the present book is instructive in this respect, as it discusses a symmetric misreading. In other words, if primitive society is unaware of social division, it is at the price of a much more frightful alienation, that which subjects the community to an oppressive system of norms that no one can change. The heteronomic transcendence of the origin serves then as a guarantee of the immanence and autonomy of social power. Clastres attributes this political mini-theory of primitive religion to Marcel Gauchet, who years later was to develop it along lines that Clastres perhaps could not have predicted.
The State against the State, as it were, in a sublation of Clastrean anarchism, which would finally see itself transformed into a defensible political program. It seems to me that the response to Birnbaum could go farther. The society against the State is effectively against the individual, because the individual is a product and a correlate of the State.
In the felicitous formula of Bento Prado Jr. It is in this very duality that one can glimpse the possibility of alternative philosophical readings of the Clastrean thesis.
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The society against the State is defined, in these terms, by a certain mode of political representation , while politics itself is conceived of as being a mode of representation , a projective device that creates a molar double of the social body in which it sees itself reflected. This mode would consist in the projection of an outside, a Nature that must be negated in order for Culture or Society to institute itself, but which must at the same time be represented within the culture through a simulacrum, the powerless chief. It originates in the approximation between Clastres and the intellectuals that gathered around Claude Lefort in the magazine Textures and, following that, in Libre, where the three last chapters of Archeology of Violence were published.
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The extra-human, even when it is recognized as essential to the constitution of humanity, belongs to the realm of belief; it is a division that is internal to the human, for exteriority is a transcendental illusion. Anti-Oedipus was an essential book for Clastres himself, who attended the courses where the book was rehearsed, while A Thousand Plateaus , published after his death, criticized and developed his intuitions in an entirely new direction.
That territorial machine codes the flows, invests the organs, marks the bodies: it is a machine of inscription. Its working presupposes the immanent unity of desire and of production that is the Earth. The issue of the powerless chiefship is thereby resituated in a wider geophilosophical context: the will to non-division that Clastres saw in the primitive socius becomes an impulse to the absolute codification of all material and semiotic flows and to the preservation of the coextensivity of the social body and the body of the Earth.
Anti-Oedipus maintained that the notion of debt should take the place occupied by reciprocity in Mauss and Levi-Strauss. Clastres, in his first article on the philosophy of indigenous chiefship — a convoluted critique of an early article of his teacher, where the chiefly role was thought of in terms of a reciprocal exchange between the leader and the group — had already suggested that the indigenous concept of power simultaneously implied an affirmation of reciprocity as the essence of the social and its negation, in placing the role of the chief outside of its sphere, in the position of a perpetual debtor to the group.
Without taking from exchange its anthropological value, Clastres introduced the sociopolitical necessity of a non-exchange. In his last essays on war, the disjunction between exchange and power transforms into a strange resonance. In dislocating itself from the intracommunitary relation to the inter-communitary relation, the negation of exchange converted itself into the essence of the primitive socius.
The Savage-Barbarian-Civilized scheme opens up laterally to include the pivotal figure of the Nomad, to which the war machine now sees itself constitutively associated.
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A new tripartition, derived from the concept of segmentarity , or quantified multiplicity, makes its appearance: the supple and polyvocal line of primitive codes and territorialities; the rigid line of overcoding resonance the State apparatus ; and the line s of flight traced by decoding and deterritorialization the war machine.
In A Thousand Plateaux , it is seen as simply recruiting it as a form of exteriority, in order to conjure the tendencies towards over-coding and resonance that are constantly threatening to subsume the primitive codes and territorialities. In similar fashion, the State can capture the war machine that is, nonetheless, its absolute exterior and put it at its service, not without running the risk of being destroyed by it. Above all, the issue of the origin of the State ceases being the mystery that it always was for Clastres.
The State stops having a historical or chronological origin, as time itself is made the vehicle of non-evolutionary reverse causalities op. Critiqued and requalified, the theses expounded in the short texts of Pierre Clastres therefore have decisive weight in the conceptual dynamic of Capitalism and Schizophrenia. The fact that these two different invalidating arguments were mobilized together against Clastres by certain currents of contemporary ethnology suggests that the latter is not free of its own ideological baggage.
The misunderstandings were plenty, without a doubt, but they were not arbitrary. The author always conceived of it as a profoundly unstable mode of functioning in its very pursuit of ahistorical stability. The politics of multiplicity is a mode of becoming rather than a way of being hence its elusiveness ; it is effectively instituted or institutionalized in certain ethno-historical contexts, but does not depend on such transition to a molar state to function — quite the opposite. That mode precedes its own institution, and remains in or returns to its default molecular state in many other, non-primitive contexts.
Let us imagine Clastrean ethnology as a conceptual drama in which a small number of personae or types come face to face: the chief, the enemy, the prophet, the warrior. All are vectors of alterity, paradoxical devices that define the socius by means of some form of negation.
The enemy negates the collective Us, allowing the group to affirm itself against him, by his violent exclusion; the enemy dies to secure the persistence of the multiple, the logic of separation. The prophet, in turn, is the enemy of the chief, he affirms society against chiefship when its incumbent threatens to escape the control of the group by affirming a transcendent power; at the same time, the prophet drags society towards an impossible goal, self-dissolution. The warrior, finally, is the enemy of himself, destroying himself in the pursuit of glorious immortality, impeded by the society that he defends from transforming his prestigious deeds in instituted power.
The chief is a kind of enemy, the prophet a kind of warrior, and so forth, and back again. These four characters therefore form a circle of alterity that counter-effectuates or counter-invents primitive society. But at the center of this circle is not the Subject, the reflexive form of Identity. Never have there been merely two positions in the primitive socius. Everything turns around the ally, the third term that permits the conversion of an internal indivision into an external fragmentation, modulating indigenous warfare and transforming it into a foil social relation, or more, as Clastres maintains, into the fundamental relation of the primitive socius.
The true center of primitive society, this loose network of local groups jealous of their reciprocal independence, is always extra-local, being situated at each point where the conversion between interior and exterior can be effected. Subtractive totality, negative indivision. Lack of a locatable distinction between an inside and an outside. Multiplication of the multiple. The society against the State is a human-only project; politics is an affair that is strictly intra-specific.
It is with regards to this aspect that Amerindian ethnology advanced most in recent years, extracting the intuitions of Clastres from their anthropocentric shell and showing how his decision to take indigenous thought seriously icquires a shift from the description of a different form of insti- tution of the similarly conceived social to another notion of anthropology — another practice of humanity — and to another notion of politics — another experience of sociality. The author writes there:. Any amount of time spent among an Amazonian society, for example, allows one to observe not only the piety of the Savages but the investment of religious concerns into social life to a point that seems to dissolve the distinction between the secular and the religious, to blur the boundaries between the domain of the profane and the sphere of the sacred: nature, in short, like society, is traversed through and through with the supernatural.
Animals or plants can thus at once be natural beings and super- natural agents: if a falling tree injures someone, or a wild beast attacks someone, or a shooting star crosses the sky, they will be interpreted not as accidents, but as effects of the deliberate aggression of supernatural powers, such as spirits of the forest, souls of the dead, indeed, enemy shamans.
In reality, though, never completely absent from the multiple aspects of a primitive culture, the religious dimension manages to assert itself as such in certain specific ritual circumstances. Under certain crucial conditions — religious conditions, precisely — nature revealed itself as social and society, as natural. And still, Clastres puts us on the right track. In that chapter he outlines a comparison between the cosmologies of peoples from the Andes and the Lowlands, which contrast diacritically in terms of their respective modes of dealing with the dead.
In the agrarian Highlands, dominated by the imperial machine of the Inca, religion relies on a funerary complex tombs, sacrifices, etc. The relation of society with its immemorial foundation is made, so to speak, over the dead body of the deceased, which should be dememorialized, that is, forgotten and annihilated eaten, for example as if they were mortal enemies of the living. Yvonne Verdier 31 in her beautiful commentary of Chronicle of the Guayaki Indians , noted that the major division between the living and the dead was a guarantee of the indivision among the living.
But there is an additional step to be made. The contrast between the Andes and Lowlands suggests that the variable distinction between the living and the dead has a variable relation with another variable distinction, that between humans and non-humans animals, plants, artifacts, celestial bodies and other furniture of the cosmos. At the same time, however, this approximation makes of non-humanity a mode or modulation of humanity — all of the non-humans possess a similar anthropomorphic essence or power, a soul, hidden beneath their varied species-specific bodily clothing.
This makes humanity a position marked by relativity, uncertainty and alterity. The mythical world, however, is neither interior nor exterior, neither present nor past, because it is both , just like its inhabitants are neither humans nor non-humans, because they are both. The world of origins is, precisely, everything: it is the Amazonian plane of immanence. We must take note of all the consequences of the fact that primitive exteriority is inseparable from the figures of the Enemy and the Animal as transcendental determinations of savage thought.
This essay analyzes how Ye Shitao explores the possibilities of constructing alternative fictional realities and the vast range of ways literature can do so. Save to Library. Narrativas en el aprendizaje de un idioma extranjero. Social destructionism: Psychosis and the limits of dialogue. Some words have the power to define what is real. This article introduces a comprehensive view of mental illness as an inner conflict with those words. We suggest that individuals are sometimes unable to assimilate the narratives most We suggest that individuals are sometimes unable to assimilate the narratives most human beings live by because the social realities they portray are abstract, incoherent and conflicting.
We do this through a constructive criticism of Open Dialogue, an innovative, celebrated approach to mental health care that resembles family therapy. Open Dialogue is important due to its situated focus on human relationships. However, the approach adheres to the metaphysical narrative of social constructionism, which we argue is but another form of rationalism that competes with the rationalism of the biomedical model. Both approaches effectively disregard embodied experience, individual decision-making and the sciences of behaviour because they have a basis in societal norms.
We illustrate our case through the psychosis stories gathered in a unique, minimally edited book, which we contrast with case examples of Open Dialogue. Our analysis shows that epistemic and therapeutic value should not be seen as opposites. The story was inspired by a wailing from The Epic of the Kreshniks, which is representative for the Albanian folklore and comparable to the great European epics, collected in the Geg dialect of the Albanian language. Anyla Saraci. A trenchant analysis of ambiguity and play in A trenchant analysis of ambiguity and play in storytelling through a consideration of literary and film techniques used by modern novelist and filmmaker Alain Robbe-Grillet.
Van Den Heuvel analyses aspects of form and content within Robbe-Grillet's fiction and film and looks at linguistic and cinematic devices used by him in order to create an environment of ambiguity within his fiction. With Robbe-Grillet, nothing is always quite as it seems - or only as it seems, and Van Den Heuvel exposes this endlessly playful author in the methods that he uses to toy with the reader and the viewer. It is a relevant essay for anyone interested in literary analysis, especially in post-modern, structuralist and deconstructionist views on literature and film. Pierre Van Den Heuvel was a leading academic researcher in language and literature studies who shed new light on the complex techniques used within Robbe-Grillet's fiction works.
Why had he chosen that path, why pharmaceuticals? Why did Conor want to go to the cave, why did they kill his mother, what was her link to the occult? Why was he so convinced he could protect Montana in America? The ends floundered around aimlessly and without conclusion. The conclusion was weak and the attempt at the twist with the son Why mention the 'black moods' then take it no-where, not even a hint of lasting damage or something carried through to his son.
It felt unfinished. It sounds like I didn't enjoy it. I did I just think he has better books available to be read. This is a good gap filler. Nov 02, Bev Taylor rated it really liked it. Jan 31, Benjamin Stahl rated it liked it. When I began this one, I was soon under the impression that I was going to hate it. The writing was bad and the characters unlikable - the main protagonist is first described as looking perfect and handsome and sort of like Tom Cruise - how original, I thought. It takes about one hundred tedious pages before any kind of plot manages to take shape.
But then it suddenly changes, and before you know it, the story begins unfolding into a shockingly dark and sinister tale about evil pharmacists, huma When I began this one, I was soon under the impression that I was going to hate it. But then it suddenly changes, and before you know it, the story begins unfolding into a shockingly dark and sinister tale about evil pharmacists, human-sacrificing satanists, and a global medical company that is a messed up and deranged as it is rich and powerful.
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This book starts off slow and boring, but before too long it morphs into a fast-paced thriller that I thoroughly enjoyed Dec 14, Mark Farley rated it really liked it. Just like his brilliant Roy Grace series, this book is intriguing like all his other books, and in this instance, covers the subject of Satanism and the pharmaceutical industry. The author achieves this by utilizing hardboiled noir and bonkbuster techniques in his writing to keep you hooked. The characters he has created are well crafted and sympathetic, which makes you really want to invest yourself and get to know them.
To the point where you just cant put his books down. They read like film s Just like his brilliant Roy Grace series, this book is intriguing like all his other books, and in this instance, covers the subject of Satanism and the pharmaceutical industry. They read like film scripts sometimes, something the author knows a lot about, which makes it such easy and entertaining reading, full of plot twists, turns and cliff hangers. Highly recommended Jul 28, Trudi rated it it was amazing. This is the first novel I've read by Peter James and what a find!
I happened to pick it up left by somebody else on holiday. The plot had all the things I love in a novel from crime thriller, science the the medical field, the supernatural and gripping characters. The ending was a bit dragged out, but otherwise a real page-turner for me.
I realise I much prefer the british setting rather now too rather than all the american crime thrillers I have read as it brought some familiarity to the story This is the first novel I've read by Peter James and what a find! I realise I much prefer the british setting rather now too rather than all the american crime thrillers I have read as it brought some familiarity to the story with known place names. Nov 17, Mina rated it really liked it Shelves: read-in-the-past. So I read this when I was 15, and it left a lasting impression. My first encounter with Satanism, sex rituals, Dystopic Big Pharma, insipid heterosexual love scenes I kind of want to re-read it someday because I remember it being incredibly compelling, but since that would essentially mean confronting a source of some of my own intellectual programming I'll stick to deconstructing the memory.
Jun 12, Laura Seaman rated it really liked it Shelves: , scanned.
This was my first Peter James book. I liked the character of Monty and also the mysterious Connor. It did take me a while to get into it but once I did u enjoyed the action; however, some of the stories got a little farfetched for me it's a conspiracy novel not a fantasy novel in my eyes, so some scenarios seemed a little stretched.
Overall though I did enjoy the authors style and would read more of his. Nov 04, Amy rated it it was ok. Oh dear what happened.
I was really enjoying this book, the storyline was great, kept you hooked, now and then there were some silly parts but I could take or leave them bits. Unfortunately towards the end it got sillier and sillier and I was disappointed that what started as a promising story ended so crap. Feb 28, Lewis Thomas rated it it was ok. Another jeopardy-ridden Orwellian nightmare that seems to lose its footing somewhere along the way. Becomes a laborious transcript of Satanic rituals.
Usually a massive James fan but this one just didn't do it for me. On the plus side, it reads like a classic James action-thriller and has plenty of twists and turns. Just not one of his best. Apr 26, Martin rated it it was amazing. Loved this book. It was gripping from the start. I was put off by its page count but, as a real page turner, it didn't take long to read.
Had to have a late night in order to finish it as it would have been impossible to put it down with twenty or even fifty pages left. Apr 19, Nicky rated it liked it. This was quite an exciting story, easy to read and enjoyable. I liked the characters in it and the general story line regarding genetics was interesting. I wasn't entirely convinced by the ending but it didn't spoil my overall enjoyment. This is definately a good book to pass the time with and it gives you a little something to contemplate. Jul 25, Hazel Hindle rated it it was ok. Whilst I was reading this I often wondered why I was persisting, as the storyline was so far fetched and fantastical A story that combines both science and the occult to extreme levels of unbelievability.
Sep 04, Jamie Whitehead-Smith rated it liked it. Overall a good book with a really interesting storyline and obviously very well researched. However, I did find the whole Satanist storyline a little lacklustre and toward the end I found it all a little too outrageous. Dec 24, Robert Botha rated it it was amazing. I was looking for a book to read the holidays and was very intrigued by this book. Has a very good balance between good and evil and has some very vivid scenes that often had my skin crawl.
Definitely one of the best thrillers I've read so far. Dec 28, Andrea Susan rated it really liked it. Slow start that develops into a frightening story involving a pharmaceutical giant that sells itself as the 'worlds most caring' but the truth is about manipulation not only of the press but of nature itself. Dec 23, Steve rated it really liked it Shelves: fiction , horror , thriller.
It moved along at a really good pace. The character portraits aren't too deep, but they don;t need to be.