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Contents:


  1. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  2. Cultural Encounters
  3. The Moor and the Novel
  4. Visor de obras.

In there was a deadly epidemic of Yellow Fever that killed many people. Malaga rebelled against the French troops and this period left Malaga in a very bad state economically when the French troops left. The economy stagnated and there was political instability. Fernando VII reigned from to as an absolutist king. The American colonies achieved their independence from Spain. There was a plot to start a rebellion against the king and General Torrijos landed in Malaga with some troops in In the second half of the 19th century, Malaga entered a prosperous period with the start of industrialization.

Manuel Agustin Heredia was born in La Rioja in and went to live in Malaga when he was 15 years old, having been orphaned. He was a self made man and he became a wealthy merchant dealing in wines and raisins. In he married Isabel Livermore, the daughter of a wealthy English merchant, who was also the sister-in-law of the Marques de Salamanca. In he created the company called La Conception in Marbella, which was an iron works company, and this company became the leading ironworks company in Spain.

In Heredia became the wealthiest businessman in Spain. His ironworks employed persons. Heredia also became the owner of a fleet of 18 ships for trade with the Americas. He went into textile manufacturing and soap manufacturing. Before his death he was named a senator. Heredia employed many Gypsies in his company in Marbella. At that time the Gypsies had only a first name. The government issued a decree that everyone in Spain had to have a last name.

Heredia told his Gypsies to use his last name on their papers. That is why Heredia today is one of the most common last names of the Gypsies. Heredia had several children, and among them was a daughter called Amelia Heredia Livermore. This woman became one of the most cultured women in Malaga. Jorge became the second richest man in Malaga because he founded the Bank of Malaga and owned the railroad line between Malaga and Cordoba, as well as the railroad line between Seville and Cadiz.

He founded one of the first newspapers in Malaga and was also the representative to congress. In Jorge Loring married Amelia Heredia and the two richest families in the city were united. Apparently this couple were very much in love and her father gave them a finca, the Hacienda San Jose, which later became La Concepcion. During this long honeymoon they were able to see the best sights in these countries, and this gave them many ideas.

In Malaga had a cholera outbreak and Jorge Loring worked very hard to control the epidemic and to help the victims. Queen Isabel II gave him the title of marques for all his efforts. The couple built a mansion on their ranch and named it La Concepcion, for one of their daughters. They then decided to build an English tropical garden on the property. Since they had a fleet of boats, Amelia asked the ship captains to bring back plants from every destination they went to.

These were put in the garden. She acquired them and put them in a small Roman museum on the property, and the building is in the shape of a small Roman temple. Later the most important artifacts were sent to the National Archeological Museum in Madrid.

La Concepcion became widely known in Europe and many famous persons visited the site. It became the cultural center of Malaga, because Amelia and Jorge were very cultured people and they invited many writers, artists, and politicians to their mansion. The Empress Sissy was one of the visitors.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The sons went into business and became extremely successful. They also had distilleries and wine companies. Martin Larios became president of the Chamber of Commerce, director of the Bank of Malaga, and one of the promoters of the railway between Malaga and Cordoba. He also started a textile mill in Malaga. This family became one of the wealthiest families in Malaga and promoters of industrialization and later Martin Larios was named Marques de Larios in by Queen Isabel II. Around the prosperity of the start of the century started to wane.

The metal industry declined because other ironworks in northern Spain were able to use cheaper power sources to undercut prices. In the s phylloxera destroyed the vineyards. Economic activity in the city of Malaga declined severely and population also decreased. Politics in the country was unstable also, which did not help matters. The 20th century arrived and agriculture became the predominant industry in Malaga. There was an economic depression that lasted a long time. The rich exercised economic and political control. The poor became poorer and society became scarcely literate.

There was hardly any industry. This prompted unrest and worker movements took root. There was strife between the owners of businesses and their workers. The poverty of people fomented the rise of socialism. The Civil War in Malaga was very bad and many people suffered. Many churches were burned. The Civil War left Malaga and the rest of the country in poverty.

Franco became the dictator and ruled the country with an iron hand.


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It was only when he died in that democracy took place. In the s tourism started in Malaga and the Costa del Sol. Tourists discovered the moderate climate of Malaga with its days of sunshine, the beaches, and the friendly natives. Hotels, restaurants, and roads were built. The construction industry became very important as many of the tourists decided to buy second homes, which is now called residential tourism.

Business in general took off, especially in the services sector. Many people became very wealthy due to the tourist boom. The University of Malaga has been a boon in providing educated people for businesses and industry. High tech business has sprung up near the university grounds in the Barrio of Teatinos.

Malaga is now the economic powerhouse in Andalusia. Education and culture have improved. The infrastructure of Malaga is better than in many places in Andalusia and Spain. The big airport and the AVE are bringing more tourists to Malaga because it is now easier to reach Malaga via air or via train. Many museums such as the Picasso Museum are making Malaga a cultural destination. Malaga is now the second most important cruise destiny in Spain.

The population is increasing rapidly as more immigrants come to the area. The metropolitan area now is the fifth largest in Spain, after Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, and Seville. The influx of foreigners has made Malaga one of the most cosmopolitan centers of Spain, where everyone is welcomed and treated warmly. The Costa del Sol has become one of the best resorts in Spain.

This is one of the most beautiful churches in Spain. In the Catholic Kings dedicated the Cathedral of Malaga in a building that was a mosque. In construction was started on the present Cathedral and it became known as the Cathedral of the Encarnacion, because it was dedicated to the Virgen de la Encarnacion.

The architect was Diego de Siloe, and the style was to be late Gothic. The building was partly destroyed by an earthquake in Building was resumed in and construction was officially stopped in , although the right tower was not finished, for lack of money. Bernardo de Galvez was a brave soldier from Macharaviaya, who became the governor of Louisiana, before the territory became French. The money was spent for arms, food, medicine, and blankets. They did not send any men because they wanted the help to the Americans to be hidden from the British.

This information is a result of the investigations of Marion Reder, a lady professor at the University of Malaga, who teaches Modern and Contemporary History. Because construction took so long with many different architects, the Cathedral has three different architectural styles. The interior is Gothic, the head of the church and naves are Renaissance, and the entrance and tower are Baroque.

The church is meters long. The choir has stalls with carved wooden statues of saints and other figures, which number Behind the choir is a marble statue of a Pieta, done by the Pissani Brothers in Italy in There are two sculptures in wood that have been polychromed to look like marble, done by Salvador Gutierrez de Leon in They represent St. Mary Magdalene and St. John the Baptist. There is another chapel, Capilla de los Reyes, that has a statue depicting the kneeling figures of the Catholic Kings, done by Pedro de Mena.

There is also a statuette of the Virgin that the Catholic Kings always took with them on their crusades. The main chapel has a modern altar with scenes from the Passion. One of the important chapels is the Chapel of Santa Barbara. The retable was done by the artist Nicolas Tiller in and is in the Gothic style. There is a painting of the Ascension by the same artist. The ceiling is very unusual because it has 23 cupolas, the only church in Spain with this feature. These cupolas have very beautiful designs of keys. Outside, the cupolas can be seen extending on the roof of the cathedral.

The Cathedral has two organs from the 18th century and these have over 4, pipes and are still in good working condition. The church also has a fabulous domed ceiling. The church has a museum which contains many treasures that have been donated, such as gold and silverware used in the ceremonies, as well as vestments used by the priests, and a lot of artwork. Today some citizens of Malaga want to finish the construction of the second tower for aesthetic reasons, but there is plenty of inertia and others want to leave the unfinished tower as it is.

Beside the Cathedral there is a smaller church called the Iglesia del Sagrario. This was constructed in the 15th century on a site of a mosque. The portal has the Isabeline Gothic style and this is the only part of the original building, which was rebuilt in The Alcazaba is the best preserved Moorish fortress in Spain. It sits on the hill that overlooks the city of Malaga.

It consists of two concentric enclosures, with the outer enclosure being lower than the inner enclosure. The inner enclosure contains 3 palaces. The Moors built this fort over the remains of a Roman fort. There are more than towers in the walls. The Alcazaba now contains the Archaeological Museum of the city. It has beautiful gardens and fountains also. The first fortress was built in the 8th century but was completely rebuilt in the 11th century for King Badis of Granada. By the entrance to the Alcazaba is a 2nd century Roman theater that is undergoing restoration. The fortress is connected to the Gibralfaro Castle.

The Moorish governors were the ones who occupied the Nazari palace, constructed in the 11th, 13th, and 14th centuries. There are three consecutive patios in the palace. There is a tower called the Maldonado Tower, which has a lookout with a beautiful view of the city below.

There is a gate at the entrance which is called the Puerta de la Boveda Vault Gate. Behind the City Hall there is an elevator that carries one to the fortress. The fortress was cleverly designed because at two gates the path doubles back to make it harder to attack the fortress. In the Alcazaba was named a National Monument. The Arab word Yabal means hill and the Greek word Faruh means lighthouse. The name Gibralfaro means lighthouse hill.

The hill that overlooks Malaga has a castle with the name of Gibralfaro. In Malaga belonged to the Nazari Dynasty of Granada. Yusuf I reigned between and and he was the one who had the Castle of Gibralfaro built. The castle was used as a military base until There is a walled pasageway that connects the Alcazaba with the Gibralfaro Castle. This is called the coracha terrestre.

The castle has deteriorated over the years and today one finds only the walls. There is a large tower called the Torre Blanca. There is also the Airon Well that is 40 meters deep and is carved out of the rock. Other things found in the castle are several tanks to store the water from the well, two bread ovens and the Interpretation Center in the former gunpowder arsenal.

This little museum shows arms, uniforms and objects used in everyday life, and information about how the castle was used over the ages. The castle was used for military uses for years. The castle has a wonderful view of the city of Malaga below. To go there by bus, take the No. He left Malaga to study art in Madrid, then went to Barcelona and later Paris. He became one of the most influential painters of the 20th century, one of the most revolutionary. He was a cofounder of the cubism style of painting. During his lifetime he said that he wanted his pictures to be exhibited in his native city of Malaga.

They had a son called Paul. When Picasso died in France in , his estate was divided between the French government in lieu of taxes and his family. Christine was then a widow and several years ago, she and her son Paul decided to exhibit their Picasso paintings in Malaga. She worked with the Government of Andalucia to have a museum built to honor Picasso. There were already two other Picasso museums in Europe, one in Barcelona and another in Paris. But there was no museum in Malaga yet. The government found a home for the museum in the Palacio de Buenavista, a historic palace built in the 16th century.

The palace has Italian and Mudejar elements and is an elegant building. Christine Ruiz-Picasso wanted her collection to be housed in a typical Andalusian house. The government had the building remodeled for the museum and the remodeling was finished in Two foundations were created, each with its own Board of Trustees, and together they promote and support the Museum in accordance with the mission outlined by the founding donors. There are a total of pieces of art in the museum, many of them are ceramics. The city park lies beside the port and goes from the Plaza de la Marina to the Plaza del General Torrijos.

The park was constructed in and conceived as a botanical garden and has been remodeled in , so it is now more than a hundred years old. New walkways have been added, statues have been cleaned, a new pond has been constructed, overgrown shrubbery has been removed, and many thousands of new plants and flowers have been planted.

Alongside the main road there are two promenades that are bordered with palm trees and shade trees. There are many benches located throughout the park. The preliminary plans were drafted by the Marquis of Larios and the architects were Rivera, Guerrero Strachan, Rucoba and Crooke were amongst those that took part in the long design and development phase. Joaquin de Rucoba was the architect who oversaw the building of the park. The park was designed as a Mediterranean garden with touches of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The land it sits on was reclaimed from the sea.

Many of the trees and shrubs have small signs identifying them. Many of the statues and sculptures are also identified. There is a walkway parallel to the Paseo de los Curas that has a lot of shade because of the canopy created by trees on both sides of this wide walkway. The new pond comes from an overflowing fountain and is bordered by rocks and flowers.

There is a big mural with angels in relief. At one end of the park is a children's play area. Across the street, one can see the City Hall, the Bank of Spain the most beautiful building in the city in Art Deco style , and the University building, which has an art gallery that is free to visitors. The park is meters long and occupies a space of 30, square meters. It contains plants from every continent, mainly from tropical and subtropical countries. There are many more species in the park. Many of the trees were donations from the Marquis of Larios.

Across the street and beside the City Hall are the Gardens of Pedro Luis Alonso , which most people think belongs to the park. This smaller park was named for the first mayor of Malaga after the Spanish Civil War, and was designed by Strachan. The design is Spanish-Muslim and French, with paths bordered with symmetrical shrubs, orange trees and a beautiful aviary. There are also ponds and springs. During spring one can smell the perfume wafting through the park from the new blossoms. Just below the Alcazaba are the Gardens of Puerta Oscura. These were designed by the architect Guerrero Strachan and run along the hill, below the walls of the fortress.

It has many interesting trees and plants, with small terraces, fountains, bowers, and footpaths. One can get a good view of the big park and the port from this hillside. The main shopping street of Malaga has sidewalks done in marble. It is named after Manuel Domingo Larios y Larios, the second Marques de Larios, who promoted the textile industry in Malaga during the 19th century. There is a statue dedicated to him at the start of the street by the Alameda Principal. He was the firstborn son of the first Marques de Larios and he inherited a large fortune from his father and also the title.

He was the one who constructed Calle Larios, which is one of the main streets, together with the Alameda Principal. The sculptor was Mariano Benlliure, one of the best sculptors of Spain at that time, and the sculpture was finished in Benlliurre was the most famouse 20th century sculptor from Valencia. In front of the pedestal, there is a figure in marble of a seminude figure of a woman with a baby boy, writing the words "Malaga Agradecida" Grateful Malaga. This represents Maternity and Charity. There is a nude figure of a man in bronze on the opposite side with a hoe on his shoulder, and a garland of grape leaves on his head.

This figure represents Work. In the 19th century, the city wanted to unite the Plaza de la Constitucion with the port and a study was made by the architect Moreno Monroy in At that time Malaga was a medieval city. The project of building Calle Larios was started in with the help of the company Hijos de Martin Larios, the main company of the Larios family.

The city expropriated the land in , where there were many old houses and proceeded with the redevelopment. The main architect was Eduardo Strachan Viana-Cardenas. The project was finished in There are 12 blocks of buildings, all of them with four floors and an attic on top. One major characteristic of the buildings is that the corners are curved. The French windows have wrought iron railings.

What is beautiful about this street is the look of uniformity and the rooftops are all about the same, and the buildings are painted in pastel colors. The street is 16 meters wide and the sidewalks are made of marble. Today the street is for pedestrian use only. In the past, this street was used for promenading elegantly and for meeting friends. One of the favorite places to meet friends is the elegant pastry shop Lepanto.

Calle Larios is one of the most famous streets in Spain and the buildings beside it have some of the highest rents in Spain. It is the best place to promenade in Malaga and one of the most visited by tourists. It is one of the most attractive streets in Spain. It was built at the same time as the Cathedral, around The first bishop of Malaga, Diego Ramirez de Villaescusa de Haro, ordered its construction as the principal entrance to the Mezquita, which was being used a Christian church.

Today it is a small church with one nave that was completely remodeled at the start of the 18th century. It has a very rich main doorway with Gothic decoration. In the niches of the pillars are the statues of the Virgin Mary and the Angel of the Annunciation, the Evangelists, and the four Fathers of the western church.

Just above the portal is the statue of Jesus Christ on the throne and on the sides are the coat of arms of the Bishop Cesar Riario, who was the bishop when the church was finished. Above, on the left, is the statue of a cardinal who is praying, identified as Fray Hernando de Talavera, the confessor of Queen Isabel.

The work of the doorway is attributed to Enrique Egas. The main altarpiece was destroyed during the Spanish Civil War. This altarpiece has the rich Plateresque style and it is not sure who made it, but it dates to It may have been one of the circle of the sculptor Juan de Balmeseda. This altarpiece has sculptures that show the lives of Saint Peter and Saint Paul. There is another altarpiece on the epistle side, that of the Virgen del Sagrario, that also came from Becerril de Campos, a gift of a family from Malaga.

It dates from the second half of the 16th century. There is also a pulpit made of red marble that dates from the 17th century. There are other gilded altarpieces for the Virgen de Lourdes 17th century , Virgen del Rosario 18th century , San Jose 18th century , Corazon de Jesus 17th century , and the Cristo Mutilado. In conclusion, this little church is very rich in art. In the Plaza de la Marina there is a life size statue of Hans Christian Andersen, the beloved author of children's stories, sitting on a bench. Andersen is wearing a top hat and has a duck in his briefcase an allusion to one of his stories.

He looks at the Alameda Principal, where he stayed in a hotel. This is the favorite place in Malaga for tourists to take pictures because the sculpture is very well designed and is very human in sentiments. It turns out that Andersen visited Malaga in October, He was captivated by the beauty of Malaga, its sea, its luminosity, and the hospitality of its people, and wrote in his book In Spain , "In no other Spanish city have I been as happy and comfortable as in Malaga".

Andersen was one of the first persons to do a cultural tour in the 19th century. The sculptor had already done some work for the Danish Royal Family. The Danish Consulate in Malaga asked him to do the sculpture in , two years before the bicentenary of the author's birth.

The sculptor was very happy because the statue was placed where the most people could see it and enjoy it. The sculptor was born in Cordoba, but now resides in the Costa del Sol. In June 14, , Princesa Benedikte of Denmark came to inaugurate the statue. This was a gift of the Danish people to Malaga. She was glad that Andersen had been very happy in Malaga.


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  6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
  7. The Palacio Episcopal has an impressive Baroque facade and a private patio with beautiful azulejo tiles. Many art shows are held here. The palace is where the bishop of Malaga has his residence. The first building was constructed in the 16th century, but there were many modifications done after that. The facade was done by the architect Antonio Ramos. The entrance has marble with colors of pink, white, and gray. There is a niche on the third floor which contains a marble image of the Virgen de las Angustias, a work of the sculptor Manuel Agustin Valero.

    The facade is adorned with many pilasters. When King Ferdinand was laying siege to Malaga in against the Moors, he set up camp where the present church is. He put up a small chapel to keep the image of the Virgin with Child sent to him by the Emperor Maximilian of Austria. When King Ferdinand won the war, he attributed this to the Virgin. In the Conde de Buenavista had the small hermitage replaced with the big church one finds there, and this was completed in Mary of the Victory. This statue was given to the city by the Catholic Kings after their victory. During Holy Week, there is a lot of activity in this church and is where some processions start from or end there.

    The church is one of the most beautiful Baroque churches in Andalusia. It is one of the first churches with a camarin-torre. A camarin is a place behind an altar where the images are dressed and the ornaments kept. A torre is a tower. This tower is filled with plaster decoration painted with gold accents to give an almost rococo effect. One can see the back of the statue of the Virgin here and down into the church. At the basement of the tower in the little museum is the Pantheon of the Counts of Buenavista.

    This pantheon is one of the most unique in Spain because it is decorated with white plaster in the form of skeletons over a black background. The skeletons are there to represent death and to make one think about it and prepare for it, which was one of the frequent themes of the Counter Reformation. This overcoat has many jewels attached to it. The church has the form of a Latin Cross with two chapels. It is topped with a beautiful cupola. The altars are decorated with statues of the saints, done by famous sculptors of the times. One of them of the Virgin is called the Dolorasa, and this was done by Pedro de Mena.

    Recently the Pope named this church as a minor basilica, which gives the church more prestige now. To enter the museum and tower, one has to pay a small entrance fee of 2 euros, but it is worth it. The museum is open only in the afternoons. From the Parador on top of the Gibralfaro mountain, the views of Malaga below are unforgettable, especially on summer nights.

    One can sit on the porch and see the wonderful views below. Jorge Loring Oyarzabal and Amalia Heredia Livermore came from the richest families of Malaga and they bought the land on which the gardens stand in Seven years before this, they were married and went on an extended honeymoon of 6 months in Europe.

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    Cultural Encounters

    They saw many beautiful gardens and decided to create one of their own when they returned to Malaga. The land they bought was located on the outskirts of the city and comprised of 49 hectares. At that time the Lorings were the richest family in Spain. He also was one of the owners of the Banco de Malaga. His father was George Loring James, from Massachussets, who went to Malaga and started a business there. Jorge Loring was an engineer, beside being a businessman, and was a very cultured man. Amalia Heredia was the granddaughter of an English consul.

    Her father was Manuel Agustin Heredia Martinez, one of the richest businessmen in Malaga, who founded the iron industry in the city. She and Jorge belonged to the most prominent families of Malaga. They hired Jacint Chamousset, a noted French gardener, to design the tropical gardens that they wanted.

    He selected the plants and he received several prizes for the design of the garden. The garden is designed as an English garden. Beside the gardens is a mansion that the Lorings built, that has recently been restored. In this house, the Lorings entertained the cream of European society. Amalia was ahead of her time and was extremely educated. She was a beauty with brains, a real intellectual. Royalty, intellectuals, writers, and artists were attracted by Amalia and Jorge and came to visit them in their house.

    Among visitors was the Empress Sissy of Austria. La Concepcion quickly became famous for its gardens and also for the archaeological collection that the Lorings put in the small Loring Museum. This building has the Doric style. The archaeological remains were found in Cartama and Amalia had them brought to the gardens. After the death of the Loring couple, the family went into economic decline and the estate was bought by the Echevarria family in In the City of Malaga bought the whole estate from this family and opened the gardens to the public in In the gardens of La Concepcion were recognized as a garden of historical-artistic importance.

    There are more than species in the gardens. Among them are focuses, magnolias, pines, cypresses, cedars, and many of the trees are more than years old. The palm tree collection is one of the best in Europe, with more than species. The gardens are probably the largest tropical plant gardens in Europe. They are simply beautiful and unique in Europe. Among the highlights of the garden are the Wisteria Walk, an arcaded area formed by wisterias that hang over a large trellis. This is spectacular in March and April, when the flowers bloom.

    The Lorings used to use this area as an outside dining room. The tallest tree in Malaga is a Monkey Puzzle tree that has a height of 45 meters. Most of them are signposted, so it is an educational experience to see the tropical gardens. Sometimes one feels that one is in a tropical rain forest as one visits the gardens. The guide explains everything during the tour.

    There is plenty of running water around the gardens, that water the trees and plants. The paths are not paved, so one should wear comfortable walking shoes. There is also a Canarian Palm Tree Walk that leads to a lookout point, where one can see the city of Malaga.

    It was built in and has one nave, with a semicircular end. The inside of the church has arches and the ceiling has murals painted. Outside there are 5 big ceramic murals that were made by the artist Julio Hernandez from Casbermeja, and they depict scenes from the New Testament. Beside the church is the building of the Hermandad de la Archicofradia de la Esperanza that is used as a museum.

    This cofradia displays their thrones and statues used for the Holy Week processions. Ideal para parejas. El edificio en el que se encuentra el alojamiento data del siglo XVIII, y en cierta manera parece que en ese siglo se ha quedado anclado La Plata. It is a nice accommodation for couples, adventurers, business travelers, families with children , large groups, and pets. Just bring your own belongings!!!. It is located in the Jewish quarter. Very close to museums, cathedral convents, etc. The apartment is renovated and fully equipped.

    It is located in a quiet area and is very comfortable housing. The building is Classified as a historic monument of cultural interest, protected by Spanish Heritage. Cleaning service would provide entry and exit of each guest. Maintenance service 24 hours free access throughout the house.

    All supplies and bills are included Each apartment has: cutlery, plates, glasses, cups, kitchenware ware, bedding sheets, pillows, etc. Microwave, toaster, juicer fruit, water heater Kettle. Cutting board. Electric coffe maker. Oil, salt, vinegar. Coffee and tea. Bathrooms with shampoo, bath gel and soap dispenser. In common areas there are dryer, ironing board and iron, hair dryers, electric mixer and dishwasher.

    If you want to reach by public transport, you can use the city bus for 1. In the case of using BUS we recommend up by escalators which are also free. The apartment consists of: Common zones 1 double room with double bed 1 Living room with sofa bed and Smart TV 1 bathroom with shower fully equipped and large kitchen Terrace Toledo is located 70 km from Madrid and get to the by a TRAIN AVE in about 20 minutes or e b in line Autocar arriving in about 50 minutes The capacity is for 4 people. It is located in the Jewish quarter of Toledo. From this location you can easily walk to reach all the monuments of Toledo.

    Show all. Popular homes. Enjoy an unforgettable experience in our classy flat! Delightful historic S XVI building recently renovated. Our elegant one bed, one bath apartment is located in the heart of the amazing Historic District. Extremely safe neighborhood. Awesome location for students, business trips and tourists alike!

    Enjoy a chic living room and fully stocked and equipped separate kitchen. Walk to monuments, restaurants and shops. Treat yourself and travel in style! Very close to secure Parking Garage "Santo Tome" opened 24h. No hustle: arrive any time! The building is located between two pedestrian streets, which grant rest and quiet.

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    Awsome location for vacation rental holidays and tourists trips! Great location for business trips 10 mins walk to Congress Center. We look forward to being a most helpful part of your trip. Toledo, World Heritage City! There's a wide leisure offer for visitors including: Traditional jewelry and craft shops, restaurants, pubs, and parks! The apartment consists of: 1 double room with double bed 1 double room with two single bed in bunk 1 Living room with sofa bed more easily and Smart TV 1 bathroom with shower 1 fully equipped and large kitchen The capacity is for 6 people.

    Se encuentra en la primera planta, sin ascensor. Un ventilador por si no desean utilizar el aire. Apartamento acogedor a m de la Catedral! Arrive any time. XVI building recently restored with two beautiful patio areas. You'll love it. The apartment is set very near the famous and historical building "Alcazar de Toledo" It is placed in a very typical Toledan house of 6 apartments that combine in a central patio.

    Inside, you can live a comfortable and trendy experience since we have very nice furniture, modern combined with the original structure of the wall. The bedroom is a nice comfortable Queen bed and inside the main bedroom there is a modern minimalistic shower! Open kitchen, table and sofa. For an amazing stay, you can use the open kitchen including everything since we love to cook. The spacious living room is very comfortable to finish the day and relax watching TV. The apartment is walking distance from the main Toledo attractions and can be accessed by car to drop off guest and luggage just a stairway away!

    Since we are right in the heart of Toledo, you can walk to the Cathedral, visit a numerous quantity of bars and restaurants, I have a lot of recommendations for your stay, don't hesitate to ask. A pasos del Alcazar! El apartamento esta reformado y equipado. Estamos en Centro Historico de Toledo donde podran disfrutar y visitar todos los monumetos a tan solo cinco minutos andando. No preocuparse el vehiculo en Toledo pues al estar en el centro todo se hace andando. Living history. Dispone de terraza con agradables vistas al convento de las Capuchinas.

    Perfecto apartamento para dos o cuatro personas. Moderno, equipado y con mucho encanto. Oficina de turismo a menos de m. Exclusivity for example, projector with Free Movies in different languages, hidromassage cabin, Modern Loft: 52 square metres 40 square metres in Ground Floor plus 12 square metres in First Floor with availability until four adults and one baby baby cot can be provided without extra charge.

    Ideal for one couple or families. Main Features of the Building: "Historic Heritage" Category, main front with amazing coat of arms and impressive wooden door from 17th Century. Studying the arrival and development of inquisitional jurisdiction in the Americas, historian Roberto Moreno de los Arcos distinguishes between the Inquisition and the institution that dealt specifically with Indians, variously called the Indian Inquisition, the Protectorate of Natives, or the Indian Tribunal of Faith. In contrast with Klor de Alva, he details how the Indian Inquisition gained both jurisdictional and ecclesiastical control over the Indians by utilizing theological arguments.

    Outlining its development, Moreno de los Arcos studies the Indian Tribunal's rationale for power in its conceptualization of the Indians as idolaters, and the resultant need for exorcism and conversion. He concludes that, although the Inquisition was prohibited from punishing Indians for transgressions of faith, the institution that administered their punishments originated from and remained analogous to it. The limits of the Inquisition were determined as much by the social need for certain practices as by the impossibility of total control in an essentially heterodox culture.

    She investigates the role of traditional healers in the diverse cultures of New Spain, and views them as serving an important function within the communities of Indians, mestizos, and blacks. Citing several trials of curanderos, she reveals how, despite their unorthodoxy, they were allowed to practice among their own peoples so long as they avoided certain traditions such as ingesting.

    Quezada explores the contrasting values of European medical practices against non-European traditions of communal healing regarded as superstitious by the Spaniards. To read her essay is to enter into a feminine world of spells, incantations, and invocations meant to attract and hold men. Despite prosecutions of many accused sorceresses, the Holy Office could not stamp out the popular practice of love magic.

    MacKay and McKendrick study the phenomenon of visionaries in Spain and their treatment by the Inquisition. In their essay, MacKay and McKendrick point out that belief in these women's messianic prophecies, especially by the monarchy, in fact protected them from the Inquisition. Richard Kagan cites three cases—a soldier, a lawyer's daughter, and a Portuguese nun—in which prophecy won considerable fame for these otherwise ordinary people.

    Church ambiguity about prophecy and the difficulties of distinguishing false prophets from true prophets prevented the Inquisition from taking a more active role in attempting to control those who said they were relaying messages from God. In fact, Kagan argues, the Holy Office only prosecuted those "plaza prophets". Kagan challenges the conclusion of other historians that the Inquisition did not serve as an instrument of royal absolutism, and he argues instead that the practice of the Holy Office must be seen within the limitations of a specific political context.

    In his essay on family and patronage, historian Jaime Contreras questions the customary polarized conceptualization of conversos opposed to Christians. Using a sociological perspective to reexamine the presence of this minority group in sixteenth-century Spain, he notes its existence as one dependent upon secrecy and clandestinity. His study posits the importance of lineal and kinship relations as a means of creating and maintaining a separate identity—both social and personal—not only within the majority group, but also in opposition to it.

    Thus, to Contreras, the crypto-Jews hold an intermediary position between conversos and emigrant Jews who fled Spain to practice their religion elsewhere. Conversos are also the subject of Stephen Haliczer's essay, which argues that a unique combination of popular and official culture promoted their persecution by the Spanish Inquisition. Citing the case of in which Jews were accused of ritually murdering a Christian child in La Guardia, he writes that popular anti-Semitism combined with official belief in demonic power and transformed Jews and Christianized Jews into agents of the Devil.

    Through a variety of literary sources, Joseph Silverman traces the Spanish obsession with lineage, with "clean" blood as opposed to tainted marrano and converso origins. Presenting several variations on the theme of fear of the Inquisition, this literary scholar shows how different authors utilize similar anecdotes to lament the destruction of a pluralistic society.

    Yet Silverman notes that, through the undetermined nature of his literary hero, Cervantes is one writer who employs the maxim positively and gives it revolutionary force. The fact that the author reveals neither. Don Quixote's birthplace nor his lineage nor even his family name is significant in not only liberating Don Quixote from the fears of having a past, but also allowing a vision of a Spain that might have been.

    Don Quixote's curiosity about others derives not from a will to destroy, but from the need to create an alternative world, one which Silverman calls a "parenthetical paradise of Art. Literary critic Moshe Lazar traces the survival of Anussim or crypto-Jewish culture, its religious devotion and continued "Jewishness" despite the forcible conversion to Christianity of Sephardic Jews.

    Challenging critics who have questioned the Anussim's ability to retain over several centuries a hidden religious life, and recalling Jaime Contreras's argument that stresses the clandestine existence of crypto-Jews, Lazar details how, despite the burning of their sacred books, the Anussim procured and kept hidden many Bibles, prayer books, commentaries on Jewish law, essays on Jewish history, and cabalistic and other mystical treatises that maintained their faith.

    When the texts were not available, they memorized a Judaism rescued from the scorched parchments and, ironically, from inquisitorial documents themselves. Lazar demonstrates how accusations and confessions echo the Anussim's frequent themes of guilt over their conversion or their life as crypto-Jews, of dreams of leaving the Christian lands for Jerusalem or Constantinople, and of the hope of messianic redemption. This scholar claims that, in particular, the fragments of psalms and sentences recorded in Inquisition trial documents in Portugal, Majorca, and New Spain, as well as in Spain, confirm the Anussim's knowledge of the most important prayers of the Sephardic ritual and bear witness to the depth and continuity of their faith.

    Historian Stanley Hordes notes the persistence of a pluralistic society in New Spain despite Inquisition persecution of crypto-Jews. After , when cases of Judaizing declined in the Mexican Inquisition, many immigrants from Spain and Portugal actively participated in the developing economy of New Spain, even as they preserved their crypto-Jewish identity. Noting the significance of extended group relationships among these people, Hordes shows that Jaime Contreras's proposal to use family, kinship, and lineage as a basis for studying conversos is valid as well for the crypto-Jews of the New World.

    In his study of cases of crypto-Jews before the Mexican Inquisition, Hordes argues that Spain's changing relationship with Portugal resulted in increased Inquisition prosecutions of Judaizers in New Spain in the periods following , when Philip II assumed the Portuguese throne,.

    He thus expands upon Richard Kagan's argument for the political significance of the Inquisition as a vehicle for the monarchy, and he underscores the bonds between the Inquisition in the New World and Spain. This scholar points out that as a result of the numerous studies, catalogs, and computerized data bases that have appeared since , contemporary scholars are much better informed about Inquisition documents. Equally important, the climate of study has evolved from a polemical confrontation between the traditional Catholic perspective and the progressive liberal viewpoint to what he terms a more "serene" approach that aims toward a higher degree of objectivity and impartiality.

    Lea's monumental A History of the Inquisition in Spain have recently been reedited; the latter has been translated into Spanish and its document references updated. He concludes his essay with a valuable list of these works published from to Historian Richard E. Greenleaf presents an authoritative compendium of the historiography of the Mexican Inquisition.

    Professor Greenleaf traces the evolution of diverse interpretations and methodologies applied to the Inquisition in New Spain, from its earliest primitive period — when Spanish Catholicism first clashed with native beliefs, through the establishment of the Tribunal of the Holy Office — , whose main function was to control the influx of seditious literature, to the Inquisition in Bourbon Mexico — and its preoccupation with non-Catholic foreigners. This thoughtful essay devotes specific sections to scholarship published both on Indians' cases before the Inquisition, as well as on cases of crypto-Jews.

    Whether exploring the uses of the Inquisition, its limitations, or scholarship that has been published on it, the essays in this collection provide a unique analysis of the Inquisition as a forum for the meeting of diverse and, at times, even opposing cultures. Despite the violence of the encounters and the inexorable changes that ensued, what emerges from. Although the immediate scholarly purpose of the anthology is to reach a more profound knowledge of the Inquisiton, analogies are certain to be drawn between events in the sixteenth century and those of our own, as the Spanish Inquisition's power is representative of oppressive institutional forces that exist to this day.

    For a clearer understanding of the systematization of this power, attention must be given both to the means of repression and to its reception and subversion by those groups it intends to constrain. The essays in this volume not only expand in great measure our comprehension of the Spanish Inquisition and its interrelations with Hispanic and Native American cultures, they also point to the larger lesson that cultural difference cannot be sustained without a continual process of social resistance.

    When you tell someone your secret, your freedom is gone. On a November morning in don Carlos Ometochtzin, the native leader of the former city-state of Texcoco, was taken out of the prison of the Holy Office garbed in the typical sanbenito cloak and cone-shaped hat of the sentenced offender. He was paraded through the streets of downtown Mexico City, candle in hand, to a scaffold surrounded by the multitude that came to witness his sentencing and abjuration, and later to see his strangled body burn at the stake.

    In less than a decade, the stake where individual bodies were set ablaze was replaced by the local controls of provisors or vicars-general of the dioceses or archdioceses [2] and, even more important, by the confessional, its penances, its magical threats, and its very real capacity to command the submission of tens of thousands of wills to the nascent colonial structure. The two related processes alluded to by these events—the failure of the Indian Inquisition and the consequent rise of penitential discipline, whose control mechanisms played a leading role in the colonization of the Nahuas the Aztecs and their linguistic and cultural neighbors —are the subject of this essay.

    From the beginning of the colonial effort in New Spain, ambivalence about the Holy Office limited its utility as an instrument for the domination of natives. The Indians, however, continued to be processed by the Inquisition throughout the decade. And although official warnings to avoid treating the natives with severity were heard, no official prohibition against trying them outside the local dioceses or archdioceses was issued until , when Philip II formally removed the Indians in the Spanish colonies from the jurisdiction of the Holy Office.

    Given the seemingly endless possibilities—painfully brought home to us by the experiences of some contemporary nation-states—for forcing subordination through a "culture of terror," [7] why were so few natives tried, tortured, or executed by the Inquisition? And why was colonial policy so inconsistent that the Indians ended up beyond its grip altogether, although no law demanded that that be the case until , while the need for maximizing control was fully recognized as critical, by both Church and Crown, prior to this date?

    But the implementation on humanitarian grounds of these instructions could not have been the primary force that led to the exemption that was generally observed. Table 1. These facts point to the difficulties that undermine any categorical conclusion concerning the timing and role played by the toleration movement in the collapse of the Indian Inquisition. Thus, when it comes to measuring the relative strength of the forces that acted to remove the Indians through the Holy Office, it may be more profitable to pay attention to the everyday exigencies of colonial control than to the royal fiats or the juridical or theological arguments that sometimes informed them.

    Although its ostensible function was to safeguard the orthodoxy of the faith, the Holy Office was recognized to be and constantly was used as an important tool for social and political control since its founding in the thirteenth century. One edict, aimed at Europeans, opposed heretics and Jews; the other, whose vagueness was more a license to prosecute than a guide to proper behavior, was "against any person who through deed or word did anything that appeared to be sinful"! In New Spain the regulatory possibilities of the latter ordinance were especially clear to those who interpreted the culture of the Nahuas as a satanic invention, and who used this as a justification for persecuting indigenous religious and sociocultural practices as criminal.

    Indeed, as the military and political hegemony of the Spaniards solidified, this popular interpretation was implemented as an apparatus of control by turning. The tracing of both European and New World moralities onto the same penal map resolved the problem of cross-cultural national jurisdiction immediately. By his zeal was such that he had four Tlaxcalan leaders executed as idolaters and sacrificers, [19] even though the previous year the Franciscans had lost control of the Inquisition to the Dominicans. It is hard to imagine a more difficult project: political and religious resistance, demographic ratios, language barriers, cultural distances, and extensive geographic spaces stood in the way, and the Spaniards had few precedents they could follow with confidence.

    Neither the confrontations with heretics, apostates, or non-Christians back home, nor their experiences with the far less socially integrated tribal and chiefdom communities in the circum-Caribbean area, prepared the Spaniards for the encounter with the city-state polities of New Spain. In Central Mexico cultural, regulatory, and security concerns contrasted sharply with those faced in Spain; there, not only did a variety of effective mechanisms of social control exist that could not be duplicated in the New World, but the problems of ethnic diversity in the peninsula tended primarily to affect civic unity rather than to challenge political stability or cultural viability, as was frequently the case in Mexico.

    All these data had to be elicited, translated, interpreted, and ordered within familiar conceptual categories that could make practical sense of the land and the people in order to form the New Spain out of highly ethnocentric and aggressively self-interested city-states. After all, it enjoyed overwhelming support on the part of Church and Crown, and it appeared to have access to the maximum force needed to extract confessions, draw forth information, and punish those who remained silent or otherwise resisted its claims.

    A close study of trial records nonetheless suggests that the efficacy of the Holy Office as a punitive system and the quantity and variety of information the inquisitors could elicit were limited by a number of factors. First, quite apart from the ruses and manipulations that sometimes precipitated inquisitorial accusations denuncias or informaciones , charges were formally restricted to the types of crimes and breaches legally recognized as within the competence of the Holy Office.

    These included a significant but extremely small number of categories of acts that needed to be controlled by the colonial powers see Table 1. Second, there were legal restraints upon the interrogative procedures used that made it difficult for important but excludable information to enter the record. Third, the extreme and public nature of the penalties could serve as a warning to many but did so at the price of moving the key rebels who resisted the colonial order further underground, where it became more difficult to uproot them.

    TABLE 1. Together, these restrictions contributed to making the Inquisition a poor mechanism for meting out the type of punishment needed to effectively regulate masses of unacculturated Indians. But what ultimately marginalized the Holy Office from the efforts to subjugate the native populations was the widespread deployment, during the first half of the century, of two related practices: sacramental confession and missionary ethnography.

    Because each of these was far more pervasive and intrusive than the Inquisition, together they were more efficient at gathering the kind of information needed to transform the Nahuas into disciplined subjects. Elsewhere I take up the role of the penitential system as an inciter of discourse on the self and as an apparatus of self-formation; [28] here my sole concern is to study how, in the first half of the sixteenth century, a shift took place from the inquisitorial techniques of random investigation and selective punishment to a technique of penitential discipline that sought to affect each word, thought, and deed of every individual Indian.

    The responsibility for the forced acculturation of the Indians moved from the Holy Office to the seemingly less stringent local offices of the bishops known as the provisorato del ordinario in see Moreno de los Arcos, this volume. The archival record attests to the timing of this de facto shift in jurisdiction because only one relevant case [29] appears between that date and , [30] by which time the Holy Office had already lost its official jurisdiction over the indigenes see Table 1.

    Translated into today's analytical language, the critical points in the instructions to the archbishop could be summarized—and were justified then—as follows:. That is, instead of torture, rigorous punishments, or scandalizing executions, what was needed was for the Indians "first to be very well instructed in and informed about the faith. The source and end of the discipline are to be invisible. For instance, "the little property they possess" should not be confiscated "because. The discipline is to be made imperceptible by appearing to be evenly applied throughout the whole social body.

    In effect, instead of teaching them a lesson through rigorous persecution, "the Indians would be better instructed and edified if the Inquisition proceeded against the Spaniards who supposedly sold them idols, since they deserved the punishment more than the Indians who bought them. I will continue by analyzing the meaning and implications of each of these points.

    Scholars have made much of the humanism the first point seems to imply. The call for tolerance is an echo of the arguments developed in the late s by Las Casas [32] to attack the superficial and sometimes violent means with which the Spanish officials and Franciscan friars sought to impose the new faith on the Indians. However, a survey of the. The popular idea that natives needed to be treated in a special manner because they were new to the faith, because they had a weak understanding, or because they were inclined to vice, etc. However contradictory, policy was primarily driven by the pragmatic requirements of the colony, although, as is the case today, in official discourse the need to control was frequently masked by lofty language that expounded on the humanity of subordinates.

    In effect, the movement toward leniency was less the product of the reformers' rejection of the spectacular punishment of criminal acts, which continued for the Indians in an attenuated form at the local provisorato del ordinario level, and more a recognition, on the part of most priests and secular officials, that what colonial order called for most was the eradication from Indian life of the myriad of seemingly banal deviations from Spanish cultural habits and social customs.

    The friars, in their letters, sermons, doctrinal works, and detailed manuals for confessors, were quick to argue that every gesture and thought, from those associated with sexual life and domestic practice to the magical and empirical procedures employed in agriculture, the crafts, and social relations, had to be disciplined, retrained, and rechanneled, so as I would add to serve the interests of those who wielded power in the colony.

    To discover and punish these minute illegalities, systematic and pervasive forms of intervention were necessary. In this situation the Inquisition's attention to the scandalous cases of a few indigenous cult leaders [36] was clearly a dangerous and wasteful display of colonial power. Furthermore, too much delinquency went unperceived by most Spaniards and. Meanwhile, as these minor infractions continued to escape the grip of the authorities, they helped to reinforce and legitimate sociocultural and political alternatives to the habits and practices necessary for the formation of a homogeneous, predictable, and submissive population.

    Although the need to impose some form of consistent and uniform discipline had been coming to light since the early s, a substantial division in the Spanish perception of the level and nature of native resistance to Christianity made it impossible to implement one. On one level, these representations were slowly being challenged by the ethnographic studies undertaken during this time, primarily those begun by Olmos in The Indian Inquisition, however, did end.

    And, in particular, its demise came about because it had been organized to function only among the baptized, who presumably already shared with the inquisitor the basic idea of what was and was not an infraction. If this is the case, it follows that the Holy Office was ill suited to discipline a people who did not share its basic cultural or penal assumptions.

    Before the spectacle of the stake could move beyond striking fear in the hearts of the natives to transforming their behavior permanently, they had to know the prohibitions of the Holy Office and accept the illegality of the things prohibited. Only an efficient system of indoctrination could make these prerequisites a reality. But an effective proselytizing strategy had to go far beyond violent or physical coercion, the performance of baptisms, or the teaching of.

    It had to penetrate into every corner of native life, especially those intimate spaces where personal loyalties were forged, commitments were assessed, and collective security concerns were weighed against individual ambitions. Thus, "the invasion within" [40] could not be done by scare tactics, whose ultimate result would more likely be resistance than acquiescence, but rather by shifting the moral gears to produce social and political effects that favored the interests in stability and productivity of those in power.

    An operative indoctrination that could produce such results had to begin with the widespread, but localized, imposition of a constant regime of moral calisthenics through corporal and magical punishments like the threat of the first of Hell.

    The Moor and the Novel

    These exercises, backed by the threat of the provisors, had to have as their aim the retraining of the individual in order for him or her to internalize a Christian form of self-discipline that would ultimately make external force secondary or unnecessary. And where this failed, as it very frequently did, it excused the policing intervention of the priest, with his threats of supernatural punishment, corporal penance, and public shaming and ridicule.

    It also permitted pious neighbors to force the sinner to behave properly by threatening to exclude him or her from the moral and civic community. It was a brilliant experiment in mass subordination: the costly punishment of individual bodies by colonial officials or the Inquisition could be replaced, for the most part, by the economical disciplining of myriads of souls.

    The authorship and end of inquisitorial punishment were always evident. The source was obvious to all: Spanish hegemony—a force coming ultimately from the same external apparatus that inflicted innumerable other penalties and burdens. To the Indians, almost all of whom remained unacculturated in the s, its ends were equally apparent: to deprive the accused of his or her traditions, the guiding memory of the ancestors, personal liberty and dignity, corporeal well-being and temporal property, and life or so it must have seemed after the execution of the cacique don Carlos.

    Since at this early date the crimes the Inquisition sought to punish were not generally regarded as illegalities by the still unacculturated community, the Holy Office depended primarily on. It therefore lacked the legitimacy to turn scandalous punishments into moral lessons. In contrast, the transparency of the discipline the friars sought to establish had as its source a continuous and permanent project of acculturation at the margins of Spanish life.

    The ritual origin and legitimating structure of this program of assimilation, which historians traditionally identify as "conversion," [42] was a baptism which, in the early colonial situation, the friars had effectively transformed into a new social contract. Thus, unlike inquisitorial punishment, which turned the native subject into an object of punitive force, baptism, the voluntary acceptance of a new social pact, could force each party to it to participate as an active agent in his or her own punishment.

    On one level, this new social contract was put into effect by the forces that were slowly appropriating for themselves the authority to determine both the rules of civic life and the nature of the new colonial truths. At the points of general concentration, and therefore penetration, these forces appeared in the form of local priests who genuinely, for the most part sought the temporal and symbolic or supernatural well-being of the Indians.

    Their good intentions had the rhetorical and emotive capacity to transpose agency, making the initial phases of indoctrination appear to be the voluntary acceptance of new rules of behavior and new codes of belief. Colonial power thus could circulate at a symbolic level that erased in its very movements the origins and ends that drove it. At another level, the new social pact, by resting on the rhetoric of magic, [43] could be enforced by the manipulation of punitive signs, [44] whose supernatural source was continually preached and whose human origin could thus remain hidden from the believers.

    The source of the new discipline was consequently made invisible by making it appear as if its fountainhead were either the individual, who voluntarily assumed it, or a deity who commanded it from above: Its end, the peaceful subordination to and productive loyalty on behalf of the colonial powers, was reconstituted as the personal quest for temporal well-being and supernatural salvation.

    As already noted, this was not possible as long as the Holy. Office had jurisdiction over such a culturally heterogeneous population as the one in New Spain. By weaving the new discipline into the personal and public strands of native and Spanish lives, however, the friars could be seen to cover with it all social and cultural sectors. The widespread use of an apparently common Christian doctrine, penal code, and ritual cycle was at the heart of this tactic. Furthermore, by introducing the Christian sacraments in ways that made them coextensive with the life-cycle rituals of everyday indigenous life, the missionaries attempted to reify these rites and their meanings so that they would appear to be normal and universal.

    The ultimate result was to make the Christian practices accessible through the native registers of common sense, thus giving them the appearance of being natural and ubiquitous, while freeing them of the need to justify themselves on other grounds. Of course, the sporadic public punishment of non-Indians that continued after reinforced this image of penitential discipline as general and uniform. In effect, the domestication and normalization [45] of millions of unacculturated Indians by dozens of friars needed far more than an Inquisition.

    It called for a new regime of control that acted upon the soul to create self-disciplined colonial subjects. Unfortunately, an analysis of the methods used to effect this end, primarily through a penitential discipline founded on confessional practices, is beyond the scope of this volume, but it is taken up elsewhere. Alberro, Solange.

    Axtell, James. New York: Oxford University Press, Baudot, Georges. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, Behar, Ruth. Cartas y documentos. Cuevas, Mariano. Mexico City: Ediciones Cervantes, Fabian, Johannes. Language and Colonial Power. New York: Cambridge University Press, Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison.

    Translated by Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage Books, Gibson, Charles. Stanford: Stanford University Press, Tlaxcala in the Sixteenth Century. Edited by Leslie Bethell. Proceso inquisitorial del cacique de Tetzcoco. Greenleaf, Richard E. Washington, D. The Mexican Inquisition of the Sixteenth Century.

    Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, Hanke, Lewis. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Klor de Alva, J. Edited by David G. Sweet and Gary B. Edited by George A. Collier, Renato I. Rosaldo, and John D. New York: Academic Press, Edited by J. Jorge Klor de Alva, H. Albany: Institute for Mesoamerican Studies. Austin: University of Texas Press, Molina, Alonso de. Confesionario mayor en la lengua mexicana y castellana. Reprint, with introduction by Roberto Moreno. Edited by Edmundo O'Gorman. Taussig, Michael.

    Shamanism, Colonialism, and the Wild Man.

    Visor de obras.

    Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Tentler, Thomas N. Sin and Confession on the Eve of the Reformation. Princeton, N. It is common knowledge that the Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition was expressly prohibited from interfering in cases involving Indians. In effect, throughout the entire colonial period and well into the nineteenth century, there existed an institution expressly dedicated to punishing the Indians' religious offenses, identified by various names: Office of Provisor of Natives, Tribunal of the Faith of Indians, Secular Inquisition, Vicarage of the Indians, Natives' Court.

    This institution generated an enormous number of trials, very few of which have come to light. Ignorance of this tribunal's existence is based partly on the fact that historiography on the colonial Church is basically furnished by clergymen and Catholics eager to exalt Spain's efforts in America and to cover up the incidents that might appear negatively to liberal minds. The undeniable existence of the Holy Office of the Inquisition has been so well documented—so worn out yet so poorly understood by politically liberal writers—that this other capacity the Catholic Church had and still has to inflict punishment should have been discovered.

    What is evident is that a great number of colonial books do exist, clearly revealing all the details of the inquisitorial procedure regarding Indians, but it seems that we cannot see the forest for the trees. This they are, in effect, but primarily they are trials that can be used as a source for many other investigations, although it seems to me that the first one should be the study of the particular institution that generates them.

    In and of themselves, like any other documents, they are of no use as a study of what they do not contain. It would be unjust to affirm that there has been a universal ignorance of this institution's existence. Obviously, those who created it knew about it, as did those it punished. I am more concerned with emphasizing the recent investigations of this institution, and I will refer to only two.

    At the end of the nineteenth century, a Mr. The latter had already published a letter debunking the myth, and with his characteristic prudence, had arrived at the conclusion that the falsifier's intention was to create the existence of a pre-Lutheran Indian in sixteenth-century New Spain. Among Icazbalceta's many arguments refuting the truth of this history is that of jurisdiction.

    He demonstrates that an Indian would have been subject to trial not by the Holy Office but instead by the authority of the ecclesiastical judge i. Much more recently, Professor Richard E. Greenleaf, with great insight and acumen, has clarified the issues. In an article published in in The Americas , he studies both tribunals, the Holy Office and the Office of Provisor, along with what he terms "jurisdictional confusion.

    In this first essay, Professor Greenleaf's principal subject is the Holy Office. This is, in short, the history of an institution's ecclesiastical-jurisdictional power over the Indians.